Governing and Managing Key Flows in a Source-To-Sea (S2S) Continuum
An S2S system includes the land area that is drained by a river system or systems, its lakes and tributaries (the river basin), connected aquifers and downstream recipients including deltas and estuaries, coastlines and near-shore waters, the adjoining sea and continental shelf as well as the open ocean. Water, sediment, pollutants, biota, materials, and ecosystem services key flows connect the sub-systems in the source-to-sea continuum and their geographies.
An S2S approach consolidates analysis, planning, policy-making, and decision-making across sectors and scales. It considers the entire social, ecological, and economic system, from the land area that is drained by a river system to the coastal area and even the open ocean it flows into.